The Forgotten Foundation of Human Performance

Photo by Mirko Blicke

Memory techniques to become superhuman! Productivity tools do more in less time! The ultimate workout to finally get in shape! 

We’ve all seen these headlines before. Hell, I’ve even written some of them. The concept is simple enough — do this little thing and X will improve dramatically.

The trouble with these promises is that they’re asking you to build on an incomplete foundation. It’s like working on the roof of a new house before laying a single brick.    

It’s ironic because there is a simple way to improve nearly every facet of our lives — and we already do it daily. The problem is that it’s misunderstood, unexciting, and time intensive (not the usual ingredients for an eye-catching headline). These perceived downsides prevent us from treating it like a true foundational aspect of our lives. So it’s pushed aside for activities with seemingly higher returns on investment.  

That overlooked foundation is sleep, the most important contributor to our health, mental and physical performance, and overall well-being.

My eyes were opened to the far-reaching effects of sleep by Matthew Walker, pHD — neuroscience professor at UC Berkeley and sleep expert — during his epic interview on Joe Rogan’s podcast.  His book, Why We Sleep, dives deeper into the powerful impact that sleep (or lack thereof) has on our lives. 

I’ve summarized the power of sleep into three principles :

  1. Sleep improves almost every facet of human performance  
  2. Conversely, not enough sleep will significantly hinder our capabilities 
  3. Virtually all of us need 7-9 hours of sleep per night 

Let’s explore each of these further. 

💤 Principle 1: Sleep improves almost every facet of human performance  

“Based on a rich, new scientific understanding of sleep, we no longer have to ask what sleep is good for. Instead, we are now forced to wonder whether there are any biological functions that do not benefit by a good night’s sleep. So far, the results of thousands of studies insist that no, there aren’t.”

Walker, Why We Sleep, page 8

This is the main thesis of Why We Sleep and it’s beautifully simple — sleep improves every function in the human body.

Such as memory:

“…following a night of sleep you regain access to memories that you could not retrieve before sleep. Like a computer hard drive where some files have become corrupted and inaccessible, sleep offers a recovery service at night….The “ah yes, now I remember” sensation that you may have experienced after a good night of sleep.”

Walker, Why We Sleep, 116

Or working on a difficult problem:

“Surprisingly, your brain can also work on a problem even while you are sleeping and are not aware of anything. But it does this only if you concentrate on trying to solve the problem before falling asleep. In the morning, as often as not, a fresh insight will pop to mind that can help you solve the problem. The intense effort before a vacation or falling asleep is important for priming your brain; otherwise it will work on some other problem.”

Oakley, A Mind for Numbers, 5

You may have experienced this first hand while studying a language, learning a new skill, or deliberating a tough situation at work. Before bed we feel stuck and unable to chip away at the intricacies of the problem at hand. But by morning we’ve somehow magically made progress. As Walker explains, “Practice does not make perfect. It is practice, followed by a night of sleep, that leads to perfection” (126).

💤 Principle 2: Conversely, not enough sleep will significantly hinder our capabilities 

When we don’t get enough sleep, the benefits noted above are unrealized and our performance noticeably suffers. Unfortunately, human performance doesn’t simply plateau during a sleep shortage — it takes a serious nosedive. 

“Obtain anything less than eight hours of sleep a night, and especially less than six hours a night, and the following happens: time to physical exhaustion drops by 10 to 30 percent, and aerobic output is significantly reduced. Add to this marked impairments in cardiovascular, metabolic, and respiratory capabilities that hamper an underslept body, including faster rates of lactic acid buildup, reductions in blood oxygen saturation, and converse increases in blood carbon dioxide…” 

Walker, Why We Sleep, 129

The negative consequences of sleep loss might be most noticeable while behind the wheel of a car. It’s an environment that requires constant attention and the negative outcomes (crashes) are quantifiable.

“Operating on less than five hours of sleep, your risk of a car crash increases threefold. Get behind the wheel of a car when having slept just four hours or less the night before and you are 11.5 times more likely to be involved in a car accident. Staying awake for nineteen hours (e.g. waking up at 8 AM and driving home at 3 AM) causes cognitive impairment equal to being legally drunk.”

Walker, Why We Sleep, 138

To put this in perspective, “vehicular accidents caused by drowsy driving exceed those caused by alcohol and drugs combined” (Walker 5).

Think back to the last time you pulled an all-nighter. Maybe it was cramming before a college final or a push before a crucial work project. Mine was on a sleepless overnight flight with my giant legs crammed against the seat in front of me. Now think about how you felt the day after staying up all night. For me, dazed, groggy, and cranky are adjectives that come to mind. Even if it’s been several years since your last official all-nighter, the side effects are easily reproduced.

“Most worrying from a societal perspective were the individuals in the group who obtained six hours of sleep a night—something that may sound familiar to many of you. Ten days of six hours of sleep a night was all it took to become as impaired in performance as going without sleep for twenty-four hours straight.”

Walker, Why We Sleep, 136

💤 Principle 3: Virtually all of us need 7-9 hours of sleep per night.

We all know a self-proclaimed superhero who claims they’re able to “get by on just 5 or 6 hours a night”. The assertion, while boastful, feels plausible. We’re all unique and it only makes sense that some people need less sleep than others. Scientists have even discovered a gene that controls the ability to fully function on minimal sleep. 

“We have, however, discovered a very rare collection of individuals who appear to be able to survive on six hours of sleep, and show minimal impairment—a sleepless elite, as it were. Give them hours and hours of sleep opportunity in the laboratory, with no alarms or wake-up calls, and still they naturally sleep this short amount and no more. Part of the explanation appears to lie in their genetics, specifically a sub-variant of a gene called BHLHE41.”

Walker, Why We Sleep, 145

Finally, some reassuring news! I thought so too, until Dr. Walker revealed the frequency of this gene. 

“Having learned this, I imagine that some readers now believe that they are one of these individuals. That is very, very unlikely. The gene is remarkably rare, with but a soupçon [a very small quantity] of individuals in the world estimated to carry this anomaly. To impress this fact further, I quote one of my research colleagues, Dr. Thomas Roth at the Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, who once said, “The number of people who can survive on five hours of sleep or less without any impairment, expressed as a percent of the population, and rounded to a whole number, is zero.”

Walker, Why We Sleep, 145

To make matters worse, we’re not very good at recognizing the issues that arise when we’re sleep deprived. Everything seems OK but, in actuality, our performance is seriously undermined. 

“When participants were asked about their subjective sense of how impaired they were, they consistently underestimated their degree of performance disability. It was a miserable predictor of how bad their performance actually, objectively was. It is the equivalent of someone at a bar who has had far too many drinks picking up his car keys and confidently telling you, ‘I’m fine to drive home.'”

Walker, Why We Sleep, 137

How much sleep is actually “enough’? The rough answer: Between 7 – 9 hours per night. Outside of a formal sleep assessment, there’s a simple method to figure out if you need more sleep:

“If you didn’t set an alarm clock, would you sleep past that time? If so, you need more than you are giving yourself. “

Walker, Why We Sleep, 36

Anyone else ready for bed?

During my research for this article, I stumbled across several Random Yet Interesting Sleep Facts:

💤 Our bodies adjust slowly to jet lag. “For every day you are in a different time zone, your suprachiasmatic nucleus (the region of the brain responsible for regulating our circadian rhythm) can only readjust by about one hour,” notes Walker (25). This means it takes about three days to truly adjust after a cross-country flight between NYC and LA, since there’s a three hour time difference between the two cities.

💤 Unihemispheric sleep “is sleep where one half of the brain rests while the other half remains alert.” It’s found in certain species of birds, dolphins, and whales and allows these animals to rest while in areas of high risk or migratory flights. This also allows some birds to literally sleep with “one eye open” — with a closed eye opposite the brain hemisphere that’s asleep and an open eye opposite the hemisphere that’s awake. 

💤 There are theories under investigation that hypothesize humans also exhibit a “very mild version of unihemispheric sleep”. This could explain why we sleep so poorly in the first night in a new place (e.g. a hotel, the guest room at your Aunt’s house). “One half of the brain sleeps a little lighter than the other, as if it’s standing guard with just a tad more vigilance due to the potentially less safe context that the conscious brain has registered while awake” (Walker 66). Wild!

💤 Avoid the mid afternoon time slot, usually between 2 – 4 pm, for critical work meetings. To blame is our post-prandial alertness dip, which is a state of drowsiness due to the 1 – 2 punch of post-meal digestion and our bodies’ natural rhythm yearning for a siesta (Walker 69).

💤 The “power nap” was founded by scientists but named by marketers. In a 1990 NASA sponsored study, researchers discovered pilots on long-haul flights suffered from degraded performance due to lack of sleep. They recommended in-flight  “prophylactic naps” to combat the loss in alertness. However, the FAA “believed the term ‘prophylactic’ was ripe for many a snide joke among pilots” and instead suggested “power napping” because it sounded better (Walker 144).

Walker, Matthew. “Why We Sleep. Unlocking the Power of Sleep and Dreams
Oakley, Barbara. “A Mind For Numbers: How to Excel at Math and Science

The Handcrafted All-Star Team, Your Personal Board of Directors

Photo by Austin Chan

Corporate Board of Directors: a group of people elected by shareholders to represent their interests. Not responsible for day-to-day decision making, the board provides high-level guidance for the ultimate success of the company.  Usually found at public & private companies, and nonprofits. (sources)

But why should a board of directors be limited to billion-dollar public companies or highly funded startups? What if we took the concept of a corporate board and applied it to our individual lives? What if everyone had their own Personal Board of Directors

Personal Board of Directors: a core team of trusted people an individual can turn to for assistance with career and personal growth. 

Everyone should have their own Personal Board of Directors — and it’s easier than you think to make it happen. There won’t be a formal induction ceremony, quarterly meetings, or compensation. Heck, the members don’t even have to know they’re on your board. But there is incredible value in crafting a team to assist in your development.

A Personal Board of Directors can help:

  • Give advice – In its purest form, they help you navigate difficult situations. People to call, text, or email when you’re stuck on something. They can also facilitate a retro meeting to help put rejections in perspective.
  • Keep you on track – It’s good to have someone hold you accountable for reaching (and setting) goals. 
  • Call you on your bullshit – Sometimes brutal honesty is needed to get back on track. 
  • Introduce you to others – Just like a corporate board, your Personal Board may have a strong network and can introduce you to the right people at the right time. 

My board of directors is comprised of a couple family members, an industry expert I met at an event, my prior manager, and multiple friends. They’ve most recently helped me refine a proposal for a potential client and bounce around ideas on future business trends.

How to create your own Personal Board of Directors

No need to look far because you have ideal candidates within your existing network. Contemplate each person’s strengths, skills, and background for a well-rounded team.

Some people to consider:

  • Prior coworkers
  • Family
  • Friends
  • People you’ve met at conferences and events
  • Your LinkedIn connections 
  • People you’ve recently asked for feedback

There’s flexibility in how to communicate with your Personal Board of Directors. One option is to simply not alert every member of your board that they’re actually on your board. Depending on your relationship, it can be challenging to discuss (and about half of my board is in this stealth mode).

However, there’s tremendous value in being more open. It benefits you because they can be on the lookout for different ways to assist — or knock you back on track. It helps them because you’re recognizing their advice, guidance, and experience. More importantly, it creates a level of trust because you’re expressing a desire for growth and including them on that journey.

If you think someone would appreciate the transparency, you can say something like, “Hey Julie, I really appreciate your guidance and consider you a member of my Personal Board of Directors”. That will spark a deeper discussion where you can explain the concept and why you cherish their collaboration. 

Rome wasn’t built in a day and neither will your board. Start today. Your future self will thank you.


The New Manager Series

Photo by Amy Hirschi

“I’m sorry, can you repeat that again,” I asked my manager. 

“Sure,” he smiled, “I said, congrats, you’ll be leading a team starting next month.”

And with that, I entered the world of management. 

After working diligently at the same company for two years I was now a manager, responsible for growing and developing a team. My employer was restructuring it’s services department, and I was chosen to lead a small team of 3 technical consultants. 

After my brain was able to fully process the news, I cracked a smile, and a few emotions ran through my system:

Joy. I’ve always wanted to lead a team and it was finally happening!

Pride. My hard work has paid off — I can’t wait to tell my parents and friends.

Appreciation: I’m thankful my efforts have been recognized.

But as I stepped outside the conference room and plopped down at my desk, a few different emotions rushed through my body.

Fear. Uncertainty. Apprehension.

I’ve never managed a team before — how the hell will I do this? My company doesn’t have any semblance of a training program — I’m going to have to figure this out on my own…and fast. 

Opening my laptop to resume the day’s work, I did what we all do when faced with life’s big questions — I Googled it. What I found was thousands of articles and books on general management techniques. What I did not find was focused guidance on helping the first-time manager navigate uncharted territory.

What I found was “12 Ways to Better Connect With Your Team”. What I needed was the best way for a new manager to connect with her team after working together as peers.

What I found was “Interview Questions Used by Top Tech Companies”. What I wanted was how a first-time manager should approach building a team.

What I found was “Management Advice From Fortune 500 CEOs”. What I craved was the new mental model I’d need to shift from a high performing individual contributor into a world-class manager. 

Closing my laptop with a sigh of apprehension — I knew was in for a bumpy ride. 

Fast forward a couple years and my initial responsibilities had morphed into a team of twenty-five people across five continents and nearly 24/7 coverage. How did I make it out alive? It wasn’t the groomed management training program and mentorship program of yesteryear. I suppose you could call me a student in the Management School of Hard Knocks. That’s to say, I figured it out as I went along — observing the best managers in the company (luckily, mine was one of them), lapping up any advice I could get my hands on, and just plain making a ton of mistakes.

I may have made it out alive, but it was a rough journey. As I think back on those initial years as a manager, I know there just has to be a better way. The more people I see promoted to management roles, the more I realize that companies aren’t properly preparing them for the road ahead. In fact, 87% of managers wish they’d had more training before becoming a manager. Proper management training and mentoring has been replaced with the fingers crossed mentality of “you’ve been a great worker so far and we know you’ll just figure it out”. 

In a step towards a world with more well-rounded and better prepared managers, this article marks the official kick-off of my “New Manager Series”  — a collection of wisdom specifically designed for first-time managers. Consider this my senior thesis before I officially graduate from the Management School of Hard Knocks 

Before we begin, I have two favors to ask:

  1. Do you know anyone that recently stepped into their first management role? If so, spread the word. This, and all future New Manger Series (NMS) posts, will help jump start their foray into Management . They can also receive article email alerts by signing up here.
  2. Do you have any management stories or advice? I’d love to include them in a future post. Comment below or drop me an email.

And now, without further ado, the New Manager Series.

Goals Have Changed

There’s a good chance you were promoted to manager after establishing yourself as a top performer. You worked on the most important projects and were responsible for the toughest clients. Your goal was to attack the assignment, execute flawlessly, and (if you’re lucky) celebrate for a few minutes before moving onto the next one. 

You were the star wide receiver — catching a sideline pass, evading defenders, scoring, and spiking the ball in victory:

But the moment you became a manager, your position on the field of business changed. You no longer score the points — you are now the entire offensive line:

As a manager, your job is not to obtain individual success. You win when your team wins. 

What often makes this transition more challenging is that your manager likely failed to communicate these new success metrics. Imagine a football coach telling a receiver that he’d now be on the offensive line, but to “just keep on doing what you’re doing”. Needless to say, a lineman trying to catch touchdowns is going to cause problems.

Even when you recognize your position has changed, it’s hard to shift your mental model to the new normal. Scoring is fun. Working on the best projects is sexy. Being a blocker seems kind of…boring. The necessity to develop this new mental framework is a major contributor to the challenging transition from individual contributor to manager.  And like all big changes, this transformation will take time. The key is to detach your value — both your personal value and to the business — from your ownership of projects. When you reach a tipping point in your transformation, you’ll know it. I remember turning the corner during a one-on-one meeting where a team member was showing me a recent project she completed — and my eyes welling with tears of pride. 

The manager wins when her team wins, and, just like an offensive lineman, the manager does the little things to help her team score:

  • Solve problems. Sometimes you’ll be able to answer the questions yourself. But more often, you just have to point them in the right direction. 
  • Clear a career path. A person’s potential for growth is a major contributor to their overall job satisfaction. Growth is the combination of skill development and career path. You’re responsible for both of these factors, but a career path is like a trail in the woods — if left ungroomed, it will overgrow and eventually disappear. It’s your job to work with your team to find everyone’s unique path and diligently protect it from decay.
  • Acquire necessary resources. You’ll encounter situations where your team needs something outside of your immediate control. The onus is on you to make the internal case and acquire the needed resources. Maybe they’re overworked and additional headcount is needed. Or there’s a new software tool that will prevent everyone from unnecessary manual work. Your task is to find a way to make it happen. 
  • Avoid distractions. Work distractions happen all the time and your mission is to keep your team protected from these constant threats. This may be an unruly client who is knocking down morale, internal politics that is causing negativity to swirl around the office, or shifting priorities across competing projects. Distractions can take many forms, and you need to be on the prowl for anything threatening the teams productivity. Once identified, you step in to protect your team — just like an offensive lineman shielding his team from pesky defenders. 

Always be on the lookout to clear a path for your team to help make their jobs easier  — because they’re the ones scoring points.